On Monday, the FBI released its latest tally of hate crimes in the United States. Despite a 1990 law that mandates data collection on hate crimes, the FBI’s count remains only a fraction of what an annual national crime victims survey estimates the real number to be.

The above map shows some of the gaps that remain in the data. It marks every law enforcement agency serving at least 10,000 residents that failed to report at all in 2016, that reported zero hate crimes, or that reported fewer than one hate crime per 100,000 residents.

ProPublica’s reporting has shown that local jurisdictions often fail to properly recognize, investigate, or prosecute hate crimes, and thus do not report them to the FBI.

So what else do we know about what we don’t know?

Location Matters: Compliance in States Varies Widely

The number of hate crimes reported in some states is far fewer than would be be expected given the size of their populations.

Take Florida, for example. It is the third most populous state but it reported fewer hate crimes than North Carolina, a state with half as many people. The 15 Florida law enforcement agencies with the most populous jurisdictions – which together cover 40 percent of the state’s residents – reported just 19 hate crimes in 2016 combined. By comparison, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department in North Carolina, which serves a community one-tenth as large, reported 27.

Below, each state is ranked by its size, represented by the bar in grey, with the number of hate crimes overlaid in dark blue.

Larger Agencies Are More Likely to Report at Least One Hate Crime

There is one factor that seems to predict whether a jurisdiction will report at least one hate crime. Agencies that serve larger communities are more likely to do so than agencies that serve smaller ones.

That isn’t necessarily so for all large communities – Harris County, Texas, and Prince George’s County, Maryland, both reported zero hate crimes in 2016. But large places do make up the bulk of hate crimes reported to the FBI.

To some extent, this is intuitive: Larger cities have more crime in general and they have bigger law enforcement agencies, some of which can have dedicated hate crimes specialists. Smaller places are much less likely to report even one incident, and more likely to not send in paperwork to the FBI at all.

Here Are the 100 Largest Law Enforcement Agencies That Reported Zero or Very Few Hate Crimes in 2016 – or Didn’t Report at All

Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation Hate Crime Statistics, 2016
AgencyStatePopulation ServedReported
Hate Crimes
Hate Crimes
Per 100,000 People
Houston Police DepartmentTX2,334,34880.34
Harris County Sheriff’s OfficeTX1,825,58000
San Antonio Police DepartmentTX1,498,64290.6
Dallas Police DepartmentTX1,320,939110.83
Miami-Dade Police DepartmentFL1,206,75710.08
Montgomery County Police DepartmentMD1,027,31870.68
Honolulu (City And County) Police DepartmentHI995,572Did not report0
Hillsborough County Sheriff’s OfficeFL936,29810.11
Jacksonville Sheriff’s OfficeFL880,557Did not report0
Orange County Sheriff’s OfficeFL839,79130.36
Baltimore County Police DepartmentMD831,37410.12
Gwinnett County Police DepartmentGA775,88360.77
Prince George’s County Police DepartmentMD695,41300
El Paso Police DepartmentTX687,19310.15
Palm Beach County Sheriff’s OfficeFL644,13810.16
Oklahoma City Police DepartmentOK641,68130.47
Baltimore Police DepartmentMD618,38530.49
Milwaukee Police DepartmentWI600,19320.33
Tucson Police DepartmentAZ533,66350.94
Dekalb County Police DepartmentGA522,589Did not report0
Pasco County Sheriff’s OfficeFL464,96810.22
Lee County Sheriff’s OfficeFL457,34420.44
Montgomery County Sheriff’s OfficeTX453,68500
Fort Bend County Sheriff’s OfficeTX451,65100
Miami Police DepartmentFL449,469Did not report0
Polk County Sheriff’s OfficeFL432,574Did not report0
New Castle County Police DepartmentDE416,87840.96
St. Louis County Police DeptMO412,20120.49
Tulsa Police DepartmentOK405,74810.25
Maricopa County Sheriff’s OfficeAZ403,50930.74
Tampa Police DepartmentFL375,90430.8
Pima County Sheriff’s DepartmentAZ365,85710.27
Greenville County Sheriff’s OfficeSC355,26910.28
Anaheim Police DepartmentCA353,50410.28
Unified Police Department Of Greater Salt LakeUT349,05010.29
Chesterfield County Police DepartmentVA337,61000
Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s OfficeLA332,52800
Corpus Christi Police DepartmentTX327,94800
Henrico County Division Of PoliceVA326,95810.31
Kern County Sheriff’s OfficeCA326,28100
Collier County Sheriff’s OfficeFL325,526Did not report0
Howard County Police DepartmentMD316,77710.32
Stockton Police DepartmentCA308,34830.97
Manatee County Sheriff’s OfficeFL295,667Did not report0
Bexar County Sheriff’s OfficeTX288,25510.35
Plano Police DepartmentTX288,24210.35
Marion County Sheriff’s OfficeFL281,163Did not report0
Pinellas County Sheriff’s OfficeFL277,98820.72
Knox County Sheriff’s OfficeTN268,45010.37
Irvine Police DepartmentCA266,66320.75
Sarasota County Sheriff’s OfficeFL265,310Did not report0
Hidalgo County Sheriff’s OfficeTX261,38900
Escambia County Sheriff’s OfficeFL260,83720.77
St. Petersburg Police DepartmentFL259,510Did not report0
Richland County Sheriff’s OfficeSC259,34200
Laredo Police DepartmentTX259,32500
Gilbert Police DepartmentAZ255,89910.39
Lubbock Police DepartmentTX252,90000
Kent County Sheriff’s OfficeMI251,21920.8
Mobile Police DepartmentAL249,92100
Norfolk Police DepartmentVA245,73410.41
Reno Police DepartmentNV244,55410.41
Winston-Salem Police DepartmentNC243,50700
Glendale Police DepartmentAZ242,93810.41
Savannah-Chatham Metropolitan Police DepartmentGA241,29600
Irving Police DepartmentTX240,76500
Horry County Police DepartmentSC239,88520.83
Ottawa County Sheriff’s OfficeMI239,48400
Hialeah Police DepartmentFL239,451Did not report0
Washington County Sheriff’s OfficeOR239,32210.42
Garland Police DepartmentTX238,85900
Monroe County Sheriff’s OfficeNY237,40720.84
Fremont Police DepartmentCA235,88110.42
Spartanburg County Sheriff’s OfficeSC230,72500
Clark County Sheriff’s OfficeWA225,52410.44
Clayton County Police DepartmentGA224,530Did not report0
Richmond Police DepartmentVA222,43010.45
Seminole County Sheriff’s OfficeFL220,29110.45
Osceola County Sheriff’s OfficeFL218,24810.46
Forsyth County Sheriff’s OfficeGA214,395Did not report0
Lexington County Sheriff’s OfficeSC213,90900
St. Johns County Sheriff’s OfficeFL213,59010.47
Clackamas County Sheriff’s OfficeOR210,98700
Rochester Police DepartmentNY209,64320.95
Fontana Police DepartmentCA209,53100
Douglas County Sheriff’s OfficeCO207,93820.96
Moreno Valley Police DeptCA206,22400
Pinal County Sheriff’s OfficeAZ206,209Did not report0
Glendale Police DepartmentCA202,90320.99
Columbus Police DepartmentGA202,338Did not report0
Amarillo Police DepartmentTX200,14100
Montgomery Police DepartmentAL199,565Did not report0
Little Rock Police DepartmentAR198,80010.5
St. Tammany Parish Sheriff’s OfficeLA198,38900
Jefferson County Sheriff’s OfficeCO197,46800
Richmond County Sheriff’s OfficeGA197,164Did not report0
Shreveport Police DepartmentLA196,46700
Hawaii (County) Police DepartmentHI196,392Did not report0
Wake County Sheriff’s OfficeNC195,88200
Salt Lake City Police DepartmentUT193,91810.52

These law enforcement agencies serve some of the U.S.’ largest jurisdictions, but failed to submit hate crimes paperwork to the FBI, reported that they had no hate crimes at all, or reported fewer than one hate crime per 100,000 residents they police.

The lack of solid facts makes understanding the scope of hate incidents difficult. Since the presidential election last year, we’ve been collecting people’s stories of hate crimes and bias incidents. If you’ve been a victim of bias-motivated harassment or violence, or if you’ve witnessed something and want to tell your story, let ProPublica know.

Ken Schwencke

Ken Schwencke is a journalist and developer on ProPublica's news apps team, covering hate crimes and white supremacist movements. Previously, he worked on The New York Times’ interactive news team and...

Hannah Fresques

Hannah Fresques is a data reporter at ProPublica. She previously worked as a data fellow at ProPublica and in education policy research with MDRC, a nonpartisan, nonprofit research organization specializing...